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Tag Archives: flow

Reprinted from here.

New Webcam menu makes lava views safely available

Lava in Kîlauea's summit vent creates a nighttime glow that can be safely observed from the Jaggar Museum overlook in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park or on the HVO Webcam.  Inset image shows the lava surface, which was moving from top center to lower left at the time it was taken.
Lava in Kīlauea’s summit vent creates a nighttime glow that can be safely observed from the Jaggar Museum overlook in Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park or on the HVO Webcam. Inset image shows the lava surface, which was moving from top center to lower left at the time it was taken.

The HVO Web site was recently revamped to make access to our increasing number of Webcams easier for viewers and the HVO staff who post Webcam images. All HVO Webcams are now linked through a single menu at

The menu lists our five Webcams showing Moku`aweoweo, Mauna Loa summit caldera, the TEB vent and lava tube system on Kīlauea’s east rift zone, Pu`u `Ō `ō crater, and two views of the Halema`uma`u vent—one from HVO and another from the rim of Halema`uma`u crater immediately above the new vent.

Webcams allow us to make critical measurements with relatively little risk. The Webcams can work in rain, wind, very high concentrations of sulfur dioxide, and even moderate amounts of ash blasted from the vent. They can be in areas where access is restricted for safety reasons. Webcams can be where people should not.

Two of our Webcams have shown active lava in recent days. On Tuesday night, the TEB Webcam caught active flows near the top of the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision. As an added treat, the Webcam also caught lights from a cruise ship passing the Kalapana shoreline in the late evening getting good views of the active flows and the Waikupanaha ocean entry.

The Webcams that chronicle developments below the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater have recorded lots of glow since early May. In fact, the recent glow has been the brightest since October 2008. The brightness of the glow is due to molten lava circulating in a narrow conduit about 100 m below the crater floor and about 180 m below the crater rim.

The Webcam located on the rim of Halema`uma`u was recently repositioned to look directly into the vent for views of the circulating lava when clear enough. The wispiness of the gas plume and the relative shallowness of the molten lava have allowed some good views recently. The vent is masked by sunlit fume during the day and is overexposed at night so the best times to look at Webcam views of lava are at dusk and dawn.

The unwavering Webcam views will allow us to better monitor the rise and fall of the lava within the vent. HVO geologists have also recorded video of the lava surface that shows some fascinating movements ( The lava emerges from the right side of the Webcam view and flows left across the opening. The flowing lava surface looks chaotic with lots of splashing and bursting bubbles—activity that produces the tephra that is carried aloft by the hot, rising gas and deposited on the rim.

Two recent Volcano Watches have discussed reasons for lava circulation using a lava lamp analogy. Magma must be convecting with the conduit, like the “goo” in a lava lamp, bringing hot, bubble-rich lava to the surface while allowing cooler, bubble-poor lava to sink.

Looking at lava within the Halema`uma`u vent conduit is like watching a lava lamp from above through a hole in the top, all the goo colored orange, and blobs being gas bubbles that burst when they get to the top.

Views from the Halema`uma`u Webcam should allow us to test our ideas about what precedes brown plumes and explosive eruptions. Do rocks fall from vent walls into the molten circulating lava trigger a vigorous gas release which could carry even more spatter and rock dust out of the vent. Or are the brown plumes and more energetic explosive eruptions initiated by a big slug of gas coming up the conduit.

For safety reasons, Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park restricts access to the entire caldera including Crater Rim Drive from Jaggar Museum south to the Chain of Craters Road intersection. Thanks to the HVO Webcams, we can all see what’s happening from much safer vantage points.

Kīlauea Activity Update

A deflation/inflation (DI) event at the summit of Kīlauea last weekend disrupted the supply of lava through the tube system and caused the Waikupanaha and Kupapa`u ocean entries to shut down. Both entries had resumed by mid-week, accompanied by breakouts near the top of Royal Gardens subdivision and just inland from Kupapa`u.

At Kīlauea’s summit, the vent within Halema`uma`u Crater continues to emit elevated amounts of sulfur dioxide gas, resulting in high concentrations of sulfur dioxide downwind. Vigorously upwelling lava within the vent below the crater floor produced bright glow at night, loud gas-rushing noises, and the emission of juvenile ash during the past week.

One earthquake beneath Hawai`i Island was reported felt this past week. A magnitude-3.4 earthquake occurred at 3:55 p.m., H.s.t, on Saturday, May 30, 2009, and was located 9 km (6 miles) southwest of Kīlauea Summit at a depth of 26 km (16 miles).

Visit our Web site ( for detailed Kīlauea and Mauna Loa activity updates, recent volcano photos, recent earthquakes, and more; call (808) 967-8862 for a Kīlauea activity summary; email questions to Volcano Watch is a weekly article and activity update written by scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey’s Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.

For more information on traveling to Hawaii in general and touring the volcanoes of the Big Island in particular, please also visit and

A montage of some of my favorite footage that Frank and I have shot of the Kilauea eruption, from the active vents at Pu’u O’o and Kupaianaha to the ocean entry at Waikupanaha, as well as day and night time footage of the summit eruption at Halema’uma’u. Sit back, turn up the speakers and enjoy–I’ve even recorded a new piece of music to go with it.

Produced by Donald B. MacGowan; videography by Frank Burgess and Donald MacGowan; Narrated by Frank Burgess, Original music written and performed by Donnie MacGowan. For more information about traveling the Big Island in general and exploring Hawaii Volcanoes National Park in particular, visit and

Famed for its fabulous views of Mauna Loa and Kilauea as much as for its interesting exhibits, The Jagger Museum (named for geologist Thomas A. Jagger) is open daily from 8:30a.m. to 5:00p.m. Exhibits include murals by Herb Kawainui Kane, seismograph charts of eruptions and earthquakes, geological displays and display about the natural and human history of the Park.

Founded by Dr. Thomas A. Jagger, the Hawaii Volcano Observatory (or, HVO) was the first of its kind in the world. Although closed to the public, the Observatory is the workplace of numerous world-famous geologists, geochemists and geophysicists who study volcanoes, eruptions, earthquakes and the effect of eruptions on contemporary ecologies.

When entering the parking lot of the Museum/Observatory, be especially careful of the Federally-protected Hawaii Goose, the Nene, who seem to congregate here. The Nene is the State Bird of Hawai’i, and this parking lot and its surrounding area constitute one of the best places for viewing them.

For more information on touring Hawaii in general and the Big Island in particular, visit and

Kilauea’s Eruption Just Keeps Getting More Fantastic!

Aloha, I’m Donnie MacGowan–I live in the County of Hawaii, on the Island of Hawaii in the State of Hawaii…I just spent the last few days camped out at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park watching Kilauea Volcano erupt and I wanted to share some of the footage I shot.

When I was a college student back in the mid 1970’s, I took a geology class just for kicks. One morning the professor burst in late and said “You guys have GOT to see this film—my friend in Hawaii just sent it to me…this is happening right now!” He loaded up the projector and showed us this film of a brand new eruption on Mauna Ulu in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park–that film changed my life. I declared myself a Geosciences major on the spot and even went on to earn a PhD. in Geochemistry. Although ultimately I did not pursue Volcanology as a discipline, my love affair with volcanoes as an avocation, and my spiritual connection to Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, has never waned.

Visitors to Hawaii Volcanoes National Park right now are being treated to a rare event. Kilauea Volcano is erupting in two places simultaneously! Up in the summit caldera, in Hale ma’uma’u Crater, a vent exploded open last March that has continued to thrill visitors with its billowing steam cloud and night-time glow. If this were the only volcano you were ever going to see, this would plenty spectacular. Current eruption activity updates are available from the National Park at 808.985.6000.

But hold on! The real action is down at the coast where lava from the East Rift Zone has broken out of lava tubes, flows across the open ground and into the sea. From the air, one can see the spectacular glow of a small lava lake in Pu’u O’o crater and from several breakouts along the 2007 Thanksgiving Eve Breakout tube system above the pali and near the top of Royal Gardens subdivision. Lava is currently flowing down the pali and entering the ocean at the Waikupanaha ocean entry where there are spectacular littoral explosions. Although this activity is usually quite vigorous, including a 10-15-m-high lava fountains, it can be sporadic on a day-to day basis.

Over the years, lava has mostly entered the ocean within the National Park boundaries. Park policy has been to allow tourists to approach flowing lava as closely as the visitor himself deemed safe. Surprisingly, a relatively small percentage of visitors were killed or maimed in this process and unparallel access to one of the great wonders of the world, the spectacle of the Earth remaking herself through volcanic eruption, was available on a very intimate basis to anyone who came to Hawaii. Every six or so years, for a period of several months, eruption flows go outside the park boundaries, as it is doing now.

The County of Hawaii, whose Civil Defense Department is responsible for visitor safety in these cases, is not so liberal in granting access to the lava flow. The county maintains a viewing area several hundred meters back from the actual flow and ocean entry areas and visitors are not allowed any closer. As of this writing, to see the lava flow one must find the County of Hawaii volcano viewing area. From the Hawaii Belt Road at Kea’au, proceed south on Highway 130 through Pahoa and toward the now-buried town of Kalapana. At the 20 mile marker the road splits; the right branch (helpfully marked “end of road”) leads to a dirt-and-lava road a couple miles long at the end of which is the parking area for the County of Hawaii volcano viewing area. One really cannot miss the way during daylight hours, as the enormous explosion plume is clearly visible from miles away. The viewing area is open from 2 in the afternoon until 10 at night; no cars are allowed in after 8 p.m. Lava viewing and road information is available from the County of Hawaii at 808.961.8093.

A carnival atmosphere hovers over the parking lot, where several vendors hawk jewelry, t-shirts, drinks and snacks…port-a-potties are also available. The trail leading to the viewing area is largely flat but traverses a broken lava field. It is well marked with reflectors and reflective paint strips along the surface and is just a 15 to 20 minute stroll. The quality of viewing varies from week to week as the lava stream shifts nearer or farther from the viewing area, but seeing the orange glow of flowing lava, or the fiery red explosions, is one of the most amazing experiences a person can have, no matter how far from the flow one is.

It is hard to overstate the power, mystery and magic of this eruption, but upon occasion, transient local atmospheric phenomena such as waterspouts and lightning add even more spice to this already awe-inspiring spectacle. Other wonders abound here, too, if you look closely. The hardened lava over which you are walking contains numerous casts of logs, trees, coconuts and pandanas fruit. Lava viewing is best done at dusk and later, however, parking spaces fill up quickly on nice afternoons. I usually plan to arrive at the parking lot at about 3:30 or four then walk into the viewing area, spending the hours until dark reading, having a picnic and chatting with visitors who have come from all over the world to see this wonder. You should wear sturdy, close-toed walking shoes and a hat to shed rain and sun. The lava surface is sharp, so I recommend long pants and long-sleeved shirts, and a stout walking stick as well. Bring at least 2 liters of drinking water, snacks and perhaps a couple Band-Aids; definitely bring sun block. Because you are right on the ocean, short rain squalls should be expected; an umbrella and rain coat or poncho is suggested, as well as protective covering for camera gear.

If the wind shifts the explosion plume in your direction, discretion is the better part of valor; you should evacuate immediately. Those fume clouds are toxic, containing various gaseous sulphur compounds including sulphuric acid, as well as hydrochloric acid and fine particulate material. On this same topic, electronic and camera gear, as well as glasses, binoculars and other optics, will be exposed to a certain amount of these toxic gases and you should wipe them down thoroughly after your trip. Most people plan to stay on after dark and so you should bring a flashlight for each person in your group; be sure to check the batteries and bulb before you leave on the trip. Remember that food and gas are not always available after dark outside the immediate Hilo or Kailua Kona areas, so be sure to fill up your gas tank BEFORE you park, and to bring plenty to eat and drink along with you.

Viewing the lava is one of the most amazing, wondrous, moving experiences you can have, anywhere on earth. People stand in awe, openly weeping at the site of Mother Earth going through her rebirth. Each fiery explosion is met with a loud chorus of “OOOOOHS!” and “AHHHHHHS!” in a display that will make every subsequent Fourth of July fireworks spectacular seem pale by comparison. If you are coming to Hawaii, you must not miss this once-of-a-lifetime show…if you have never thought of Hawaii as a potential vacation spot, you should consider it simply for this rare, unique and entirely awe-inspiring, mystical, wondrous opportunity.

I’m Donald B. MacGowan–thank you for spending a little time with me and my volcano…aloha e a hui hou.

For more information on travel to Hawaii in general and visiting the Big Island in particular, visit and here.