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by Donald B. MacGowan

New at iTunes: Hawaii Dream Vacation iPhone/iPod Touch App Puts the Magic of Hawaii in the Palm of Your Hand, available at iTunes or www.tourguidehawaii.com.

The importance of wearing good sunglasses in Hawaii can not be overstated: Graphic from Photo by Donnie MacGowan

There are many wondrous, enigmatic and fascinating attractions on the Big Island of Hawaii, some better known than others, many out of the way and generally off the beaten track.  Tour Guide Hawaii has produced an encyclopedic collection of the most up-to-date information, presented as short GPS-cued videos, in an app downloadable to iPhone and iPod Touch that covers the entire Big Island, highlighting the popular and the uncrowded, the famous and the secluded, the adventurous and the relaxing.

More than Everything You Want to Know About Buying Sunglasses For a Trip To Hawaii

New at iTunes: Hawaii Dream Vacation iPhone/iPod Touch App Puts the Magic of Hawaii in the Palm of Your Hand, available at iTunes or www.tourguidehawaii.com.

Laurie Maus safely enjoys a day at Hapuna Beach, Kohala Hawaii, using proper sun protection and proper eyewear: Photo by Donnie MacGowan

Fashion statements aside, sunglasses are an important health and safety consideration when traveling to Hawaii, especially if you plan to spend any time on water, on the sand, on snow or when at altitude —where both direct and strong reflected light is present.

Ultraviolet Light and Your Eyes

New at iTunes: Hawaii Dream Vacation iPhone/iPod Touch App Puts the Magic of Hawaii in the Palm of Your Hand, available at iTunes or www.tourguidehawaii.com.

Even in white-out condition, at altitude sunglasses protect against UV radiation that pierces the clouds and can damage your eyes Summit, Kilauea Volcano Hawaii Volcanoes National Park: Photo by Donnie MacGowan

Even if your eyes aren’t bothered by the light, the sun’s UV rays (ultraviolet radiation; wavelength shorter than 400 nanometers and invisible to our eyes) can damage your eyes. For instance, since UV radiation goes right through clouds, even on a moderately cloudy day at the beach in the tropics there may be sufficient UV radiation to cause photokeratitis, or “snow blindness” (actually sunburn of the cornea), pingueculae and permanent retinal damage.  As you go up in altitude (such as visiting Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, driving over Hawaii’s Saddle Road, and certainly driving up to the summit of Mauna Kea), exposure to damaging UV radiation increases dangerously as the atmospheric buffer thins.

New at iTunes: Hawaii Dream Vacation iPhone/iPod Touch App Puts the Magic of Hawaii in the Palm of Your Hand, available at iTunes or www.tourguidehawaii.com.

Sunglasses are a must to protect against the bright sun and glare from water and sand when at the beach Hapuna Beach Kohala Hawaii: Photo by Donald B. MacGowan

Ultraviolet radiation is divided up into three bands, UVA, UVB and UVC. UVC rays do not reach earth’s surface so are unimportant here. Although there are contradicting schools of thought on whether UVA radiation is dangerous to eyes, since it passes right through glass, it is best to play it safe and get sunglasses offering 100% UVA protection. Most important is to block UVB which are the most dangerous. UVB doesn’t go through glass, but it does penetrate the synthetic materials many sunglass lenses are made of. A thorough discussion of various international standards for rating protection by sunglasses is presented here.

Remember, it is not enough to simply get dark sunglasses…in fact, dark sunglasses with no, or only 85% or less UV protection are actually worse. As the sunglasses block the light, your pupil opens up and even more damaging UV radiation enters the eye. Therefore, it is best to get sunglasses that are rated at blocking 95-100% of UV radiation. Sunglasses marked “UV 400” are perfect as they block all light up to 400 nanometers wavelength (that is, all UVA and UVB).

Children are especially susceptible to UV damage, and since it is cumulative over a lifetime, they need to have quality sunglasses to protect their young eyes.

New at iTunes: Hawaii Dream Vacation iPhone/iPod Touch App Puts the Magic of Hawaii in the Palm of Your Hand, available at iTunes or www.tourguidehawaii.com.

As the atmosphere gets thinner, it's ability to buffer UV radiation from the sun declines rapidly, so visits to Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, saddle Road and Mauna Kea all require good sunglasses. Hikers between Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, Hawaii: Photo by Donald B. MacGowan

People with cataracts and macular degeneration are also highly susceptible to UV radiation damage and, indeed, it may exacerbate those conditions. In addition, there are many common photo-sensitizing drugs (antihistamines, antibiotics, chemotherapy, cardiac drugs, etc—even many fragrances) that can cause one to be more susceptible to damage from the sun’s rays. If you are unsure if your prescription falls in this category, talk with your eye-doctor, your pharmacist or physician before traveling.

New at iTunes: Hawaii Dream Vacation iPhone/iPod Touch App Puts the Magic of Hawaii in the Palm of Your Hand, available at iTunes or www.tourguidehawaii.com.

It's temping to read on the beach without sunglasses on, but it's dangerous to your eyes Kua Bay, Kohala Coast Hawaii: Photo by Donald B MacGowan

It might also be a good exercise to visit the AccuWeather site for and compare the average UV radiation where you live with that of where you are going.

One further note on UV protection for people already wearing eye correction. Contact lenses offer some protection but don’t cover whole eye, so more protection is needed. As well, wearers of glasses, depending upon the lens material and whether or not the lenses were specifically treated for UV protection, will get some protection but not enough. Best to play it safe and invest in prescription or wrap-around sunglasses which cover your existing prescription glasses.

Infra Red Radiation and Your Eyes

It has become popular to market infra-red radiation (IR) protection in sunglasses in the past decades. Infra-red rays are invisible to the human eye, consist of relatively long-wavelength radiation with wavelengths from 0.7 to 300 micrometers, and is the electromagnetic radiation which humans experience as “heat”. Many sunglass manufacturers rate their glasses in percentage of IR blocking; some manufacturers produce glasses that block exclusively IR light. Currently it’s unclear if IR poses any permanent threat to the human eye, however, with exposure to intense sunlight over time (such as a day at the beach or altitude) IR can cause you to experience a burning or stinging in your eyes and fatigue if your sunglasses have no IR blocking.

New at iTunes: Hawaii Dream Vacation iPhone/iPod Touch App Puts the Magic of Hawaii in the Palm of Your Hand, available at iTunes or www.tourguidehawaii.com.

Polarizing sunglasses allow you to cut through the haze and reflective glare, allowing you to see what's beneath the water's surface, like this baby hammerhead shark off the Kohala Coast Hawaii: Photo by Donnie MacGowan

Lenses: Polarization, Tinting (Color, Intensity and Gradient) Mirroring and Photochromatic

Polarized lenses and those given an anti-reflective coating both block glare caused by reflection, however, polarization is by far more effective. I highly recommend you invest in polarized sunglasses for travel to Hawaii.

New at iTunes: Hawaii Dream Vacation iPhone/iPod Touch App Puts the Magic of Hawaii in the Palm of Your Hand, available at iTunes or www.tourguidehawaii.com.

These tourists all understand the value of UV protection for their eyes when boating on the tropical seas, Kona Hawaii: Photo by Donald B MacGowan

Tinting color is entirely a matter of taste and preference, however tinting intensity (sometimes expressed as “darkness”) is a matter of the primary use of your sunglasses. The variety of tint colors is confusing and largely a matter of personal taste, however there are a few generalities which may help you decide which tint is best for you. Grey and green tints distort natural colors least; purple is also fairly color neutral. The G-15 Tint is a specific mixture of green and grey tinting that blocks 85% of light and is very popular. Brown, amber and yellow sharpen contrast (for any sports activity or driving in “flat light” conditions) but wildly distort color. Other color tints distort the natural colors a great deal and are largely a matter of vanity.

New at iTunes: Hawaii Dream Vacation iPhone/iPod Touch App Puts the Magic of Hawaii in the Palm of Your Hand, available at iTunes or www.tourguidehawaii.com.

Because of the tropical latitude and extreme altitude, sunglasses are definitely required on any trip up Mauna Kea, even in a white out. Mauna Kea Summit Temple and Astronomical Observatories Photo by Donald B MacGowan

Fashion sunglasses with tint intensities in the range of 10-20% are wholly inadequate for Hawaii’s topical sun. As mentioned above, they will do more harm than good by opening up the pupil allowing more light into your eye, without adequately screening that light. If you are simply going to drive around Hawaii, walk through shops and museums, spend a little pool-side time and perhaps a little beach time, tinting which blocks only 80% of the light is OK. If you are planing a lot of driving, going to altitude, plan to be out on the water more than a few minutes or to spend more than a wee bit of time on the beach, you should get a tint intensity of 90% or above.

Tint intensity is also available in gradients. Single gradient lenses are good for driving and hiking. These lenses are darker at the top than at the bottom, so the sky is screened relatively more than the ground. Double gradient lenses are darkest at the top and at the bottom with a narrow band of lighter tinting in the middle. Favored by boaters and skiers, as they darken both the reflective sea or snow and the sky while leaving the area directly in front of the eye more visible, they are also very good for the beach, for the same reasons.

New at iTunes: Hawaii Dream Vacation iPhone/iPod Touch App Puts the Magic of Hawaii in the Palm of Your Hand, available at iTunes or www.tourguidehawaii.com.

Sunglasses are important health and safety equipment in Hawaii, especially on sand and near water where reflection is intense: Photo by Donald B MacGowan

Mirrored lenses are available in an astounding array of metallic colors (silver, blue, red, green, copper, etc) and patterns (bug’s eye, rainbow, gradient, a variety of flags and sports logos, etc). The color and patterning of the mirroring doesn’t affect your perception of color the way lens tinting does. Mirroring helps to decrease the amount of light entering your eye by reflecting it off the lens surface and aids anonymity.

Photochromatic lenses change lens tint density, color or both with exposure to light. Lenses that only change color, from say, pink in the dark to blue in the daylight, have little or no value as sunglasses. However, lenses that change tint intensity are quite good for use where lighting is going to be highly variable, thus many people choose these for prescription sunglasses. The main problem with photochromatics is that they are generally unavailable in tints of sufficient maximum intensity to block the necessary amount of light in tropical or high altitude conditions. Also, the lenses change intensity somewhat slowly so that in rapidly changing light conditions (think of driving in and out of trees shadowing the road), they cannot keep pace and become a liability instead of an aid.

New at iTunes: Hawaii Dream Vacation iPhone/iPod Touch App Puts the Magic of Hawaii in the Palm of Your Hand, available at iTunes or www.tourguidehawaii.com.

Road glare, particularly along the ocean or at altitude, necessitates good sunglasses; summit of Highway 200, the Saddle Road, between Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, Hawaii: Photo by Donald B MacGowan

Lenses:  What Material Is Best?

Lens material for sunglasses come in four basic types: plastic, high index plastic, polycarbonate and glass. Plastic lenses are inexpensive, more lightweight and more shatter resistant than glass. However, they are about 20 to 35 percent thicker than other lenses and require scratch resistance and UV coatings. Cheaper plastic lenses also will distort your vision more, especially at the lens margins.

New at iTunes: Hawaii Dream Vacation iPhone/iPod Touch App Puts the Magic of Hawaii in the Palm of Your Hand, available at iTunes or www.tourguidehawaii.com.

Ultraviolet rays penetrate even heavy cloud and can cause severe damage when you least expect it, especially when at altitude or on the water; Mauna Kea Summit area, Hawaii: Photo by Donald B MacGowan

High index plastic lenses are also lightweight and thin. They give better peripheral optics than polycarbonate lenses. However they are quite reflective and so require anti-reflective coating as well as scratch-resistance coating for durability.

Polycarbonate lenses are the strongest lens material in terms of impact resistant; they are the thinnest of all four lens materials and also the lightest. Polycarbonate also blocks 100% of UV radiation without needing a special coating. However, they require scratch-resistant and anti-reflection coatings, and peripheral vision may be slightly distorted in strong prescriptions.

Finally, glass lenses have exceptional scratch resistance and optical clarity. Glass lenses are, however, at least twice the weight of plastic or polycarbonate lenses, and about 25 to 40 percent thicker. Glass also shatters and chips more easily than other lens materials and requires UV coating to provide any UVB and 100% UVA protection.

All sunglasses sold in the US are required to be impact resistant—note that is “impact resistant”, not “impact proof”. If impact resistance is of special concern to you, you should get polycarbonate lenses, which are the most impact resistant of all.

New at iTunes: Hawaii Dream Vacation iPhone/iPod Touch App Puts the Magic of Hawaii in the Palm of Your Hand, available at iTunes or www.tourguidehawaii.com.

The intense tropical sun in Hawaii, as well as the bright reflection and glare from water and sand, means sunglasses are a must have along the shore Wailoa Beach, Kohala Hawaii: Photo by Donald B MacGowan

Lenses: Quality and Shape

Lens quality, of course, determines how much distortion there is in the view. Even many inexpensive plastic lenses today, however, are of perfectly adequate quality. You can easily test the lens quality by trying the glasses on before you buy them Try looking at a brightly lit and then relatively dim object; is there an increase in distortion as your eye opens up in the dark? How is the clarity of peripheral vision? The best, most accurate lenses are shaped with what is called “6-Point Base Optics” ; this is only available in the high-end sunglasses

Lens shape and frame styles determines how much of the eye is protected, and how much light is able to get to the eye around the side of the glasses. Light coming around the side of the glasses is particularly damaging. Dark lenses in front of the eye open-up the pupil allowing side light (which is unfiltered and un-darkened) to enter the eye. For those wishing the greatest protection, wrap-around sunglasses are the obvious choice. One can also get side-protectors (such as those on mountaineering sunglasses) which are quite effective at blocking out the side light, but hamper peripheral vision.

New at iTunes: Hawaii Dream Vacation iPhone/iPod Touch App Puts the Magic of Hawaii in the Palm of Your Hand, available at iTunes or www.tourguidehawaii.com.

Everett Maynard sporting his sunglasses on the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii: Photo by Donnie MacGowan

Remember when buying your sunglasses that expense is no guarantee of quality. Quite expensive fashion sunglasses (or “vanity” glasses) are wholly inadequate to Hawaii’s tropical sun…worse than useless, they are actually dangerous (as discussed above). And, it should be noted that perfectly adequate sunglasses, with great protection and lens quality, can be purchased for under $20, provided the customer is careful to make sure they have the necessary protection and clarity of view.

New at iTunes: Hawaii Dream Vacation iPhone/iPod Touch App Puts the Magic of Hawaii in the Palm of Your Hand, available at iTunes or www.tourguidehawaii.com.

Sunset at Ke'eku Heiau, Keauhou Historic District, Kona Hawaii: Photo by Donald B MacGowan

In Hawaii’s bright light, it’s important to wear your sunglasses, even if you don’t think it’s all that bright out. Exposure to strong sunlight without sunglasses will reduce your night vision by 50% or more by slowing down your eyes’ adjustment to the darkening dusk and highly increasing eye fatigue. That said, you should never wear your sunglasses at night, even to make a fashion statement as this will reduce available light to levels too low to to drive by.

A companion article discussing sunburn and sunscreen is available here.

To see the new iPhone/iPod Touch App, please visit http://www.tourguidehawaii.com/iphone.html. The best of Tour Guide Hawaii’s free content about traveling to, and exploring, the Big island, can be found here. For more information on traveling to Hawaii in general and on touring the Big Island in particular, please also visit www.tourguidehawaii.com and www.tourguidehawaii.blogspot.com.

New at iTunes: Hawaii Dream Vacation iPhone/iPod Touch App Puts the Magic of Hawaii in the Palm of Your Hand, available at iTunes or www.tourguidehawaii.com.

Tour Guide Hawaii, your friend in paradise. Frank Burgess at Place of Refuge, Honaunau Hawaii: Photo by Donald B MacGowan

At Tour Guide our goal is to insure you have the most fun, most interesting and enjoyable vacation here in Hawaii–that you are provided with all the information you need to decide where to go and what to see, and that you are not burdened with out-dated or incorrect information.

For independent reviews of our product, written by some of our legions of satisfied customers, please check this out.

All media copyright 2009 by Donald B. MacGowan. All rights reserved.

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by Donald B. MacGowan

The Justly Famous Green Sand Beach at South Point, Hawaii: Photo by Donald B. MacGowan

The Justly Famous Green Sand Beach at South Point, Hawaii: Photo by Donald B. MacGowan

Whether you visit the Big Island for a few days, a couple weeks or a few months, you want to make the most of your time in Paradise. With such a wide variety of natural and commercial attractions, it is natural for the visitor to get a little overwhelmed in the “Option Overload” and not be able to make a balanced and informed decision on what they want to do and how best to spend their time.

On the Green Sand Beach, South Point, Hawaii: Photo by Donald B. MacGowan

On the Green Sand Beach, South Point, Hawaii: Photo by Donald B. MacGowan

Even choosing which beach you want to spend time on, or where you want to hike can be an exercise in confusion and conflicting advice.  Clearly, visitors to Hawaii could use help making quality decisions about how best to spend their time.

Hawaii's Green Sand Beach at South point in the afternoon: Photo by Donnie MacGowan

Hawaii's Green Sand Beach at South point in the afternoon: Photo by Donnie MacGowan

Tour Guide Hawaii is excited and proud to announce the release of their new GPS/WiFi enabled App for iPhone and iPod that helps you navigate your trip to Hawaii with hours of informative, location-aware video and information. Although our video guide will lead you to dozens of unusual, untamed and unspoiled spots, let’s look at a hike you might have heard about, but might not be able to find from maps and guidebooks and would otherwise miss if you did not have Tour Guide Hawaii’s new App.

Everett Maynard, Co-Founder of Tour Guide Hawaii, Hikes to the Green Sand Beach: Photo by Donnie MacGowan

Everett Maynard, Co-Founder of Tour Guide Hawaii, Hikes to the Green Sand Beach: Photo by Donnie MacGowan

South Point’s Justly Famous Green Sand Beach Hike; Papakolea Bay and Mahana Beach, Hawaii

Looking down on the green Sand Beach at South Point Hawaii: Photo by Donald B. MacGowan

Looking down on the green Sand Beach at South Point Hawaii: Photo by Donald B. MacGowan

Absolutely unique to the island of Hawai’i, beautiful and strange, are the handful of green sand beaches composed of crystals of the semi-precious mineral olivine (also known as peridot). The green sand beach at South Point is the best known, largest and most accessible of these.

The Amazing Green Sand Beach, South Point, Hawaii: Photo by Donald B.  MacGowan

The Amazing Green Sand Beach, South Point, Hawaii: Photo by Donald B. MacGowan

To get there, turn left onto a signed, patchy-paved and dirt road immediately when you arrive in the Ka Lae area following signs to the Kaulana Boat Launch. Proceed down the road and park just to the left (south) of the boat launch, where there is a dirt road that leads to the green sand beach. The road has a gate which is sometimes locked as the road primarily provides access for hiking, ATVs or mountain biking: private vehicles are, ostensibly, prohibited but are becoming more and more common—this is the reason for the multiplicity of washed out tracks.

The two-track leading to the Green Sand Beach at South Point, Hawaii is perfect for mountain biking: Photo by Donnie MacGowan!

The two-track leading to the Green Sand Beach at South Point, Hawaii is perfect for mountain biking: Photo by Donnie MacGowan!

We suggest you walk—it’s more enjoyable and it saves wear and tear on a delicate ecosystem.

Severe erosion and deeply rutted roads result from ignorant tourists driving acros the plains...these ruts are larger than many cars! : Photo by Donald B. MacGowan

Severe erosion and deeply rutted roads result from ignorant tourists driving acros the plains...these ruts are larger than many cars! : Photo by Donald B. MacGowan

Hiking distance is 2 ¼ miles each way along rolling tropical prairie (and if you cannot envision that, you really need to do this hike). Despite the multiplicity of dirt roads, you really cannot get lost as you are never out of sight of the shore. Road conditions along the road to the beach vary dramatically from week to week and the road becomes impassable with even a gentle rain; this is another reason we do not suggest drive but rather enjoy the short, pleasant hike.

Hikers returning from the Green Sand Beach, South Point, Hawaii: Photo by Donnie MacGowan

Hikers returning from the Green Sand Beach, South Point, Hawaii: Photo by Donnie MacGowan

About mid-way you begin to see the far side of the cone, out of which the bay has been eroded, poke up above the rolling grassland.

When you reach the end of the trail, you are a hundred or so feet above the beach on the rim of the remnant of the crater. There is a weather-beaten, old sign about 100 feet from the crater rim that directs you to the path down. Look closely for the faint track to scramble safely and easily to the beach (there is occasionally a blue trash barrel to mark this spot, but always there is a cairn of rocks). There is one sort of tricky spot where you have to inch your way over a 3-foot ledge, but almost anybody from senior to child can negotiate the hike to the beach.

Sound Advice to Visitor's...don't scratch messages in the canyon walls and don't take the sand! : Photo by Donald B. MacGowan

Sound Advice to Visitor's...don't scratch messages in the canyon walls and don't take the sand! : Photo by Donald B. MacGowan

One can also easily scramble down from the middle (easternmost) of the cone using a set of stairs, but this can be slippery at the best of times—even dangerous if wet. Although tricky to spot on the way down, from the beach looking up the way back to the crater rim is easy to follow.

Hiking the cinder cone onto the Green Sand Beach at South Point, Hawaii: Photo by Donnie MacGowan

Hiking the cinder cone onto the Green Sand Beach at South Point, Hawaii: Photo by Donnie MacGowan

Close up of the sand from the Green Sand Beach, Hawaii: Photo by Donald B. MacGowan

Close up of the sand from the Green Sand Beach, Hawaii: Photo by Donald B. MacGowan

The sand grains on this beach are formed from olivine crystals weathering out of the lava and cinders from the cone over an eruptive vent that has been partially breached by the sea. The beach lies in the interior of the cone, and the somewhat protected cove formed by the remnant of the cone makes for a wonderful swimming/snorkeling spot.

Olivine Phenocrysts In Hawaiian Basalt...the source of the sand at Green Sand Beach, South Point, Hawaii: Photo by Donnie MacGowan

Olivine Phenocrysts In Hawaiian Basalt...the source of the sand at Green Sand Beach, South Point, Hawaii: Photo by Donnie MacGowan

Happy bathers getting wet at the Green Sand Beach, Hawaii: Photo by Donnie MacGowan

Happy bathers getting wet at the Green Sand Beach, Hawaii: Photo by Donnie MacGowan

Swimming, snorkeling and surfing are delightful within the confines of the bay. Be very wary of rip tides and ocean currents; do not go out far nor in at all if the surf is high or there are strong winds. The bizarre color of the water shrieks for color photographs, particularly underwater photographs taken while snorkeling.

Boogie Boarders at the Green Sand Beach at South Point, Hawaii: Photo by Donald B. MacGowan

Boogie Boarders at the Green Sand Beach at South Point, Hawaii: Photo by Donald B. MacGowan

No water is available anywhere along the hike or at the beach–be sure to take at least two liters of water per hiker for drinking.  If you plan on swimming, you may wish to take an extra liter or two of water to rinse hair and torso, as well as a dry change of clothes.  It’s miserable hiking in wet clothes with salty skin.

About half-way through the hike you begin to see the top of the cone out of which the bay holding the Green Sand Beach has been carved: Photo by Donnie MacGowan

About half-way through the hike you begin to see the top of the cone out of which the bay holding the Green Sand Beach has been carved: Photo by Donnie MacGowan

There are no services. At all. None. And a goodly long way to drive to get to any…plan and act accordingly.

Frank Burgess--just another day at work at Tour Guide Hawaii--hiking to the Green Sand Beach at South Point, Hawaii: Photo by Donald B. MacGowan

Frank Burgess--just another day at work at Tour Guide Hawaii--hiking to the Green Sand Beach at South Point, Hawaii: Photo by Donald B. MacGowan

To see the new iPhone/iPod Touch App, please visit http://www.tourguidehawaii.com/iphone.html. The best of Tour Guide Hawaii’s free content about traveling to, and exploring, the Big island, can be found here. For more information on traveling to Hawaii in general and on touring the Big Island in particular, please also visit www.tourguidehawaii.com and www.tourguidehawaii.blogspot.com.

We do not reccomend you try this, it takes courage skill and timing--as well as strong swimming skills to return to the beach...Gren Sand Beach, Hawaii: Photo by Donald B. MacGowan

We do not recommend you try this, it takes courage skill and timing--as well as strong swimming skills to return to the beach...Green Sand Beach, Hawaii: Photo by Donald B. MacGowan

Eric Carr heads home after another day at the office at Tour Guide Hawaii...South Point, Hawaii: Photo by Donnie MacGowan

Eric Carr heads home after another day at the office at Tour Guide Hawaii...South Point, Hawaii: Photo by Donnie MacGowan

All media copyright 2009 by Donald B. MacGowan. All rights reserved.